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Indicate the interconnection of a particular sector to other sectors from which it purchases inputs (demand side). When a sector increases its output, it will increase the total (intermediate) demand on all other sectors, which is measured by backward linkages.





A Leontief inverse matrix created by the leontief_inverse_create function.


The vector of industry (product) backward linkages in a wide data.frame class, following the column names of the Leontief inverse matrix.


Backward linkages are defined as the column sum of the Leontief inverse, in line with the Eurostat Manual of Supply, Use and Input-Output Tables (see p506-507.) and the Handbook on Supply and Use Tables and Input-Output Tables with Extensions and Applications of the United Nations (see p636,)

See also

Other linkage functions: forward_linkages()


de_coeff <- input_coefficient_matrix_create( iotable_get(), 
                                             digits = 4 )
I <- leontief_inverse_create (de_coeff)
backward_linkages (I)
#>        iotables_row agriculture_group industry_group construction trade_group
#> 1 backward linkages          1.704922       1.841421     1.813747    1.603712
#>   business_services_group other_services_group
#> 1                1.594974             1.378375